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Parking tickets on private land

This advice applies to Scotland

In many areas, parking on public land is managed by the local authority. Where it isn’t, the police are responsible instead. Parking tickets can be issued by either the local authority parking attendant, or by a police officer or traffic warden.

On private land, parking is often managed by private parking companies who issue their own parking tickets, also called a parking charge notice (PCN). The rules about issuing these tickets are different to the rules about tickets issued by local authorities or the police.

On this page, read about what you can expect if you get a parking ticket if you parked in a private car park or on private land. 

Parking on private land

If you park on private land, such as a supermarket car park or a privately owned multi-story car park, you will have entered into a contract with the landowner. If there are clear signs displayed in the car park setting out rules for using the car park, then these are the terms of the contract. If any of these rules are broken, then the car park owner can take steps to enforce them. There is often a parking operating company managing the car park for the owner or landlord.

Parking on a private residential road

Some roads are privately owned by the residents. Residents may have problems with unauthorised parking. Private landowners are entitled to impose reasonable terms and conditions and restrictions on those using their land.  You may want to get legal advice about how to enforce your legal rights. Options available to resident landowners include:

  • asking the local authority to adopt the road, with enforcement coming under local authority control. This requires majority agreement. Your local authority can explain the process, including any costs.
  • entering into an agreement with a reputable private parking operator to enforce the parking restrictions.

When a parking ticket may be issued

If you park on private land without permission from the owner, or breach any conditions imposed by the owner, then the owner or someone authorised by them, may give you a parking ticket. This might look like an official fixed penalty but it isn't one. It's a notice that the owner of the car park or the private car park operator intends to take you to a civil court, and will offer to let you pay the charge to settle the case out of court. This is a civil matter, not a criminal one.

You must be aware of the terms of use of the parking

The car park operator issues the notice on the basis that you have broken the terms of the contract between you and the landowner. There is no specific legislation dealing with parking on private land in Scotland. The general principles of contract law apply. This means that for a binding contract to be formed between you and the landowner, the rules about where and when you can park and what charges apply must be displayed clearly throughout the car park (particularly at the entrances). They must be clear enough so that no reasonable person could claim that they were not aware of the rules.

A sign is misleading if it fails to make it clear what the car parking rules that form the contract between you and the landowner are. If signs are misleading or deceptive, they might break consumer protection regulations, as well as not forming a valid and enforceable term of the contract between you and the landowner.

NHS car parking facilities

NHS boards are responsible for the management of NHS car parking facilities. There may be a private car park operator managing the car parking facilities on behalf of the NHS board.

Is the enforcement of private parking regulated

Landowners and car park operators do not need licences to issue parking tickets. It is an unregulated business although many car park operators are members of an Accredited Trade Association (ATA), such as the British Parking Association or the International Parking Community (IPC).

If you get a ticket

Do you think the ticket is unfair

If you get a ticket on your windscreen or through the post, and you think that it is unfair because, for example:-

  • you didn't break the rules
  • it wasn't obvious what the rules were, either because the wording on a sign wasn't clear or there were no clear and prominent signs about the car parking rules, particularly at the entrance to the car park
  • the charge you are being asked to pay is too high. Following a court case known as ParkingEye Limited v Beavis, it is not now easily possible to challenge a high charge in court. You may see a reference to this case in the ticket that you are sent. Under the professional codes of practice, the charge should not exceed £100 unless it can be justified, so you may be able to challenge a charge of more than £100 using this if the parking enforcer is a member of a professional trade association
  • the ticket has been sent to you as the registered keeper of the car, but you were not the person who parked the car at the time the ticket was issued 
  • you had a good reason for breaking the rules, for example you may have stayed over the time you paid for in a hospital car park because your appointment overran
  • you take longer than others to buy your ticket or return to your car because you're older, disabled, pregnant or have a very young baby. You could argue you've been discriminated against under equality law. 

You could challenge the ticket or consider not replying to the parking operator. 

Is the registered keeper liable

If you are the registered keeper, you may be sent a ticket. If you didn’t park the car at the time the ticket was issued and you don’t say who the driver was, there is no law in Scotland that makes you, as the registered keeper, automatically liable for the ticket. You do not have to identify who the person that parked the car was. It is still possible that a parking company may try to make you pay the parking charge by taking you to court. You can defend any court action.  

How to challenge a ticket

Informal appeal to the parking operator 

You should contact the parking operator, giving your reasons and asking them to withdraw the ticket. You could also approach the private company with an interest in the car park, for example, the supermarket whose car park you had parked in, and ask them to withdraw the ticket. It is important to provide the car park operator with as much evidence to support your case as you can. This might include, for example, a photo of an unclear sign, or paperwork showing that you either sold the car before the date of the ticket or bought it afterwards.

Template letters to help you challenge a parking ticket

There are two template letters to help you challenge a parking ticket for parking on private land. You may want to read both before deciding which one applies to you.

If your informal appeal is rejected

If a parking operator rejects your appeal, you may be able to appeal to the Independent Appeals Service (IAS) run by the International Parking Community (IPC). The IAS has Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) accreditation from Trading Standards, which means that members of the public who have disputes with any parking operators, not just IPC members, can appeal to the IAS as long as the parking operator is willing to take part.

If you have made an appeal directly to the parking operator, and that appeal has been rejected, you can use the IAS service free of charge providing you make your appeal to the IAS within 21 days of the rejection. 

There is more information on whether you can appeal to the Independent Appeals Service on the IAS website at, and there is a Frequently Asked Questions page at  

The form to make an electronic appeal to the IAS is at, with links to more information about how to appeal, including appealing by post. Make sure you include any evidence that will support your case.

If you decide to do nothing

If you get a ticket and you don’t think you should have to pay, you can decide not to pay and not to reply to the parking operator. You should keep the ticket and any other paperwork or evidence.  It is possible that the parking operator will take enforcement action in order to recover the charge. In practice a threat of this nature may not be followed through as the amount of money being demanded is usually quite small. A parking operator has no power to recover a parking charge without first taking court action.

The company may continue to send requests to pay and if you continue to ignore these they may decide to take you to the sheriff court. If the parking operator does take you to court, you may be able to defend the action, for example, on the grounds that the signage in the car park was unclear and/or that the fee being demanded is unreasonably high. In July 2015, an expert legal opinion stated that consumers can challenge tickets issued by private car parks, and for the first time has set out the grounds on which they can do so, although it was made before the court case about high charges. A court may decide that you did breach a contract with the parking operator and that you must pay the charges.

If you are uncertain about what to do, you should get advice.

If the company keeps contacting you, you can ask them to stop harassing you. If the company behaves badly, you can also report to this to the landowner or to an Accredited Trade Association (ATA), such as the British Parking Association or the International Parking Community (IPC) if the company is a member.

Complaints about parking enforcers

If the company is a member of an Accredited Trade Association (ATA), like the British Parking Association or the International Parking Community (IPC), their procedures can be followed to complain against the parking ticket. Members of the BPA should wait 28 days before sending a final demand. Members of the IPC should wait 14 days before sending their final warning letter. You may be able to appeal using Alternative Dispute Resolution

If you are complaining because of a lack of clear signs or because a BPA member has breached their code of practice, the car park operator may be committing a breach of the consumer protection regulations and you may want them to be reported to your local Trading Standards Office, so they can investigate your complaint. You can do this by contacting the Citizens Advice consumer service. It can also help with any queries about tickets for parking on private land.

Trade associations for parking enforcement

The British Parking Association

The British Parking Association (BPA) is a professional association for the parking industry. Its members include many local authorities and parking operating companies, some of whom remove vehicles parked on private land or in private car parks and issue parking tickets.

The BPA has produced a code of practice which its members are required to follow that includes guidance on the issue of parking tickets. If you have been given a ticket, while parked on private land, you could find out if the parking operator is a member of the BPA and so should have followed the relevant code of practice. The code contains detailed provisions about, for example, the use of automatic number plate recognition cameras, the wording to be used on parking tickets and the requirement to provide clear and adequate signs.

If you have a complaint about a company which you think is a member of the BPA, you should first follow the company’s complaints procedure to try to resolve the matter. If after doing this, you still feel unhappy, you can contact the BPA. The BPA cannot become involved in individual complaints, but it will investigate whether a member company has breached its code of practice. It may then decide to suspend or withdraw that company’s membership.

The BPA’s contact details are:

British Parking Association
Stuart House
41-43 Perrymount Road
Haywards Heath
West Sussex
RH16 3BN

Tel: 01444 447300
Fax: 01444 454105

The International Parking Community

The International Parking Community (IPC) is another professional association for the parking industry. Like the BPA, it has a Code of Practice and you can make a complaint in a similar way. There is more information on its website below.

The IPC's contact details are:

The International Parking Community 
PO Box 431
WA16 1EP


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